Zika virus : According to the WHO, Zika is a disease caused by a kind of virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. People infected with Zika virus often have symptoms of mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, joint and muscle pain, discomfort or headaches.
Zika virus was identified at the first time in Uganda in 1947 in Rhesus monkeys in the syvatic. Zika appeared in humans in 1952 in Uganda and Tanzania. The outbreak of Zika virus has been record in Africa, Americas, Asia and the Pacific.
Zika infectious sources
Zika virus is transmitted to humans by branches of Aedes mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti in the tropical regions. They are the ones transmitting dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.
The signs of Zika
The incubation period of Zika is not obvious. Its signs are similar to other arbovirus such as fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, joint and muscle pain, headaches. These signs are usually mild and remain between 2 and 7 days.
Diagnosis of Zika can be confirmed by testing in laboratory only, when Zika virus RNA is in blood or other body fluids of patient like urine or saliva.
The treatments of Zika
Normally, the disease of Zika virus is mild and does not require specific treatment. Patients of Zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough water and treat for pain and fever with conventional medicine. In severe cases, patients need to go to medical facilities to receive doctors’ advices.
Currently, vaccine for Zika is no available.
Disease complications of Zika
Microcaphaly is the most dangerous complication of Zika. In the large outbreak in French Polynesia and Brazil in 2013 and 2015, the national health authorities reported on neurological complications and latent autoimmune of Zika. However, currently in, the local health agency has observed the increase in syndrome of Guillain-Barré, which coincided with Zika in the public in general and the increase in babies born with microcephaly in northeastern of Brazil.
Prevention of Zika
Mosquitoes are the main infection source of Zika so the key method to prevent and control this disease is reduction of mosquitoes. Reducing contact between mosquitoes and humans by:
- Wearing light-colored cloths, covering body.
- Using physical barriers such as: mosquito nets, mosquito barrier.
- Eliminating living places of mosquitoes such as do not store water in buckets, pots, etc., clean or remove flower pots.
- The community must support to reduce the density of mosquitoes in the respective localities.
- Women who are pregnant or intend to become pregnant should receive advices from medical staff about prevention of expose to disease.
- Using condom when having sex with someone infected or suspected infection with Zika virus.
- Using insect repellent.
- Travelers must have the basic precautions to protect themselves from mosquitoes.